PCB Fabrication: Understanding the Etching Process

Electronics | Posted by Kristina Chung
Mar 17 2015

PCB fabrication involves a lot of steps, depending on the type of PCB and its intended end use. One of these steps is etching, among several others.

Etching refers to the chemical removal of copper that does not form part of the circuit board. There are several etching solutions used. The most common ones include ferric chloride and ammonium persulphate.

A resist is placed over the desired copper areas to prevent removal during the etching process. Preparations can be done using the direct draw or manual method, photographic method, direct etch and silkscreen.


Pcb fabricationPreparing the board manually is also referred to as the direct draw method. A resist pen can be used to draw the copper patterns over the board surface. Some use dry transfers or specialty tapes or donuts. The circuit patterns are laid out on the copper layer. All areas outside of these patterns will be eaten away by the etching solution. Once done, the drawn patterns will be all that is left on the copper layer.

When using the pen technique, special ink is used to draw the circuit pattern on the copper layer of the board. This technique relies on the waterproof characteristics of the ink and the impervious plastic on the copper surface, which keeps the etching solution away from the underlying copper. This is the fastest method to apply a circuit pattern on a printed circuit board. However, accurate placement of the traces may prove to be difficult. Accurate trace placement is necessary especially when using IC packages in the PCB design. Uneven ink placement on the board may also cause trace areas to be etched away. This is why direct draw is only recommended in PCB fabrication of low-definition PCBs or when retouching prior to etching.

Photographic preparation

This technique allows for the fast and efficient production of PCBs with consistently high qualities.

The board is first covered with resist material, which sets up upon exposure to UV light (photo resist sensitive to light). The layout of the circuit pattern is drawn on a positive UV translucent artwork film. Circuit traces are represented by opaque areas on the film and clear areas are where copper should be etched away.

Once done, the film is placed on a photo sensitized board and then exposed to ultraviolet light. The light passes through the clear areas, which cures the underlying photo resist. The PCB is then submerged into a prepared developer bath. During the bath, all sensitized photo resist on the surface of the board is removed. All the remaining photo resist is now the traces in the circuit pattern.

This technique allows for neat and more accurate placement of traces. Also, the artwork film can be used several more times on different boards.

Direct Etch

The direct etch method in PCB fabrication uses laser printers. Toners used in laser printer are made up mostly of pulverized plastic, which makes for a good etch resist.

First, the circuit pattern is printed on a special kind of transfer paper through a laser printer. The image is then laid face down on the printed circuit board. Iron the transfer paper for 1 to 2 minutes. Immerse the board into a water bath, which dissolves the special back coating of the transfer paper. Remove the board from the bath and slide away the paper. The board is now ready for etching.

Inspect the pattern before immersing the board in etching solution. If the pattern needs reworking, simply print another pattern. Wipe of the incorrect pattern from the surface of the board using acetone and start over.

This allows for very accurate and neat circuit patterns. The width of the traces can be as narrow as 0.006 inches. This is also very convenient, easy and inexpensive. However, complex images on circuit patterns do not print well using this method.


This is the main etching preparation method for large-scale PCB fabrication. This process is almost the same as photographic preparation. The same procedure is performed. The only difference is that emulsion is not applied to every circuit board. Instead, one screen is exposed and developed, which has been coated with photosensitive material.

After the screen is exposed, the PCB is placed under the frame. Special ink is placed on the frame then raked across. Open areas on the screen do not allow ink to pass through. These will be the areas etched away.

PCB fabrication is a multi-step process that is mostly carried by machines.

HCG Drops Can Create Substantial Weight Loss Fast

Weight Loss | Posted by Ken Rojas
Feb 19 2015

Weight loss matters get argued about all the time. There are those that take to the internet, and there are those that hit the talk show circuit. No matter what you do, you’ll run into someone talking about how you can lose weight fast. The truth of the matter is that you can’t just take a miracle pill and see a transformation. Yes, there are some things that can accelerate the process, but when it comes to true losses, you are going to have to look into some tried and true opportunities overall. That’s where you will find that things like hcg seem to work best. When you take on the notion of a balancing act, you will end up with a good overall look and feel for your body.

real hcg dropsManaging the losses is the easy thing. It becomes a lot harder down the line when you look into the management cycles that you have to put into place. More and more, people are finding themselves in a difficult arena because they do not know how to leverage the right pieces. It’s with that in mind that you may want to take on some tips that will give you a leg up on chasing the overall dream of sorts.

Start Small

The first thing that you should do is look into making small lifestyle changes. These changes can be as simple as cutting out certain foods that you are used to eating on a regular basis. For instance, if you eat a great deal of processed foods, stop yourself, and focus on something else. Look for whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and perhaps some lean meats. This will help you gain a helping hand in the right direction and give you more balance than most. Without the balancing act that comes within this opportunity, you are not going to get anywhere in your chase for true weight loss and balance. Take your time, there’s no rush towards lifestyle change, and the goal is longevity and not just isolated within this framework.

Finding Some Fun

Most people don’t realize how much fun exercise can be. Most people assume that they have to put in serious time into a gym or routine that is going to help them get the losses they seek. The truth of the matter is far from that, as you can definitely find a good relationship between exercise and fun if you are careful. Finding a balancing act is the thing that you need to consider because if you are able to get into motion and still have fun, you will accomplish great things. Finding fun is the treasure trove that most people who lose weight will say is the key factor. Truly look into this as you start to work through your benefits cycle.

Supplementing The Change

As you start to change your lifestyle choices, consider looking into real hcg drops, as a way to help with metabolism. The metabolism that you have in place is an important thing, and will help you push forward in the right areas. You want things to change in a good manner, and that is not going to happen if you don’t look into helping the body’s natural nuances. The body has enzymes that help push the fat cells away from the body, metabolizing things in an appropriate manner and giving you a lease on the losses. That’s where diet and exercise get help too. If you find the right supplements, you will end up with a proper movement forward, and the management of weight will be so much easier to work within overall. Take this on carefully, and you will see a huge jump, guaranteed.

As you start to change your lifestyle choices, consider looking into real hcg drops, as a way to help with metabolism.

The Business of a Motivational Speaker

Motivation | Posted by Brent Byrne
Jan 28 2015

The fact that motivational speaking is not just a passion but also a career, motivational speakers should know every aspect of getting into the business. How do they earn money? The answer is very simple. They earn money through charging to give speeches. Some other ways include selling digital video discs (DVDs), selling books and speaking at training camps or summits.

Some famous people who are successful in their career engage in motivational speaking to enjoy the lucrative rewards and inspire others. Anyone who wants to be a motivational speaker in the future should understand well the payment structure of the business.

The Speaker Fees

A motivational speaker earns through the speaker fees. These are payments for the speaking projects. The process starts with the negotiation of the motivational speaker with the event sponsor. Some speakers use their websites or blogs to promote and to communicate with their future clients. The rate could be hourly or daily depending on the needs of the clients. Moreover, there are cases in which the speakers negotiate flights and hotel rooms if the event is held in international countries.
Return of Investment

motivational speakerThe speaker fees mainly depend on how popular and expert you are in the industry. Some successful speakers can earn up to $5,000 per speaking gig. Motivational speakers can also be keynote speakers. A keynote speaker delivers the keynote address at an event or program like conferences, political conventions or graduations. He reinforces the overall message or sets the tone of the program. Some popular and well-established motivational speakers, a politician or a celebrity for instance, can command as much as $200,000 per speaking engagement. The average range for motivational speakers is between $2,000 to $5,000 per appearance.

Joining Associations

Most speakers would say that joining associations is more beneficial than working alone. Basically, associations help the speakers to market themselves and get referrals. National Speakers Association is the biggest speaking organization that has roughly around 3,400 members. The associations serve as a negotiator of the speaker fees. Moreover, they promote speakers though their website and highlight each speaker’s expertise. Clients use the website www.motivational-speaker-success.com to choose which motivational speaker they want considering of course its competency on a specific topic. The placement fee will go to the association and the rest will go to the speaker. Joining an association is really helpful for speakers who are just starting out.

Increase Your Earning Potential

It takes so much hard work, determination and diligence to improve yourself as a speaker. Most beginners in the industry engage in small commitments in rotary clubs and community centers to improve their craft. Also, they join in different organizations, Toastmasters International for instance, to enhance their speaking skills. One way to market yourself is through the use of local advertising and social media. These can give you an exposure and increase your bookings. Lastly, you can also increase your earnings by selling DVDs, CDs, or books.


The job of a motivational speaker is not just about passion. It also has something to do with learning every aspect of the business. A speaker’s income depends on experience, popularity and expertise. Successful speakers in the industry can earn as high as 5,000 dollars per gig. And to be a successful one there some things that you need to do. First is joining different associations. This is a good way to market yourself and get referrals. They will help you to promote on their website. Then, you can also join organizations to gain advanced speaking trainings and improve your craft. Lastly, selling DVDs, CDs or books can help you increase your earnings.

Different Uses of Custom Challenge Coins

Military | Posted by Roberta Hughes
Jan 21 2015

You may have seen or encountered custom challenge coins before but you are not aware what they are or what they look like. You may also have a family member or a friend who is a member of the military and has been keeping a military coin in his or her possession for a long time. These military coins are very important to all coin bearers because it brings a very important memory for them.

Almost all members of the military, whether they are from the Armed Forces, Navy or Air Force, have been keeping these military coins for a very long time. These coins symbolizes that the coin bearer is a member of a military unit and is an intangible part of the military.

Custom challenge coins are also known as challenge coins, unit’s coins or squadron’s coins. These coins bear the symbol of the unit where a soldier comes from. They can also be collected and traded by different people, even those who are not members of the military. Many collectors and hobbyists are spending a lot of time looking and collecting these coins – which are mostly sold in the market at a high price value.

custom challenge coinsThere are a lot of stories telling the history and origin of these coins. However, even up to now, the origin of these coins is still unknown even if there are a lot of myths and legends pertaining to them. One of the most popular and highly documented stories about these coins is about an American Pilot who fought during the First World War against the Germans. Due to the injuries he attained during the fight, the American pilot was forced to land in a German territory. He was later on captured by the Germans and was held captive. However, the British forces planted a bomb in the prison where he was, giving him time to escape. During his escape, he was found by French soldiers who mistakenly identified him as an enemy due to his lack of proper identification. He was later on sentenced to death. Before the French soldiers take his life, the American pilot pleaded to one of the commanding officers. The commanding officer, after seeing the American pilot’s medallion with his unit insignia, commanded for the execution to be postponed. After further investigation, the French forces found out that the American pilot is indeed an ally. Instead of being killed, he was given a bottle of wine as a sign of friendship. The American pilot’s life was saved by his custom challenge coin.

These custom challenge coins are also actively collected and exchanged by different people, even those not from the military. Retirees and employees from different government entities are trading these coins to other coin bearers.

The Presidential Coin, which is considered as the rarest and most highly anticipated challenge coin, is the most popular type of custom challenge coins. One of the ways to get this custom coin is to be able to get a chance to shake the hands of the World’s Most Influential and Powerful Person, the United States President. Any foreign visitors, who were invited by the President himself, are also given this very important coin.

These coins are not only given during military events – these can also be given as an introductory or welcome gift to a representative during a special ceremony. Some companies are also giving away customized coins to their employees as a symbol to boost their pride, confidence, and morale. These coins are also given during graduation ceremonies or recognitions of different schools and universities to show appreciation for a person’s special skills and contribution.

The Many Faces of Commercial Leases in Great Neck Real Estate

Real estate | Posted by Carl Gage
Jan 08 2015

When it comes to real estate leases, there are three big types that you can choose from. If you are one of those ambitious businessmen who want to start and nurture a business empire in the real estate world, then you first have to consider the importance of location. You will also have to get a responsible landlord who can take charge of things and has years of experience to offer in order to jump start with your real estate business.

Great Neck real estateAbove everything else, you should have prior knowledge about the many faces of commercial leases in Great Neck real estate. The city is considered the Promised Land in the business, so you may want to get some inspiration from it. You should realize that having prior knowledge regarding the various types of leases gives you an edge when selling houses and properties. Go ahead and identify what are those.

First of all, there is what you call the gross lease. In Great Neck real estate, this is considered as the most common and popular type of lease in the field of commercial leases. This is similar to renting space or a home. By employing a landlord, you can rest easy knowing that someone takes charge of running your business, and if you opt to employ a property management professional, then it will be easier to pay for the property taxes and the insurance as well.

This is the most ideal type of lease for starters because it’s affordable and very easy to manage. But there are other clauses that you need to consider when opting for this type of lease. Ever heard of escalation clauses? This will help protect the owner of the property for rent in case of inflation. You can either decrease or increase the rent of the property to jive with the inflation.

Then there’s the triple net lease. In Great Neck real estate, this type of lease works best if you have a bigger business. You can utilize this type of lease if you rent out your property to clients who consume a lot of electricity during their stay, and if they have to make changes or improvements to the building in order to suit their needs.

This type of lease is ideal for those who rent out space for business establishments, or multiple-unit buildings used as apartments. Of course for this type of lease charges a lower rent because you can definitely help the tenant to fix whatever goes awry in the building. Even if this is the case, the deal is always fair for both parties, so make sure to always assess the capability of your tenant to pay for this type of rent.

Great Neck real estate also offers the modified net type of lease. Every commercial real estate property has different styles, size, and features that can suit a client’s most discriminating taste. The modified net lease is a combination of the two previous types of leases. What’s more is that the modified lease is more flexible too.

You can still assign your landlord to manage the property and at the same time, your tenant can help out with other things like minor repairs that are not covered by the rent. Perish the thought that real estate ventures are very intimidating and difficult to undertake. You can do very well when you heed the advice of property experts. Have fun running your business!


For great neck real estate this site can be a popular choice where you get various options.

ABC’s Of Logo Lanyards

Product | Posted by Nelson Singh
Jan 02 2015

Although logo lanyards have been in the market for so long, some people are still not knowledgeable about them. Learn about logo lanyards in no time at all, right here, right now. Here are there ABC’s.

A stands for About logo lanyards

Logo LanyardsDo you know that lanyards have been in existence for more than 500 years now? They were originally used to hold pistols and whistles by the French military during the 15th century. Today, there are various functions for lanyards. Aside from holding small but important items like keys, Id’s, and pens, they are also being used to hold electronic gadgets, such as flash drives, cameras, MP3 players, cellphones and other devices. Lanyards are also utilized as marketing tools nowadays. They are popular as corporate give away during holidays and special events. D you know that lanyards are sometimes used as accessories? The latest lanyards designs and style are fashionable that they can complement your attire of the day.

B stands for Buying Online

Logo lanyards can be availed online. One need not go out of the house to order them. It would save you a lot of time, gasoline and energy. You have an option to do your design or let the professional artists of the lanyard companies do it for you, for free. You can view various samples in their online shops. Here is a step-by-stepguide for ordering logo lanyards online.

1.Allot at least a month before the date when you would need the lanyard.The lanyard companies usually require two weeks from day of order to shipment. There is a rush job for those who are in a hurry but additional charges would apply.

2.Make your design.Keep it simple. Choose the appropriate color, style and fonts for your lanyard. You can send this design via email. The lanyard company would provide the final layout before actual processing of your order is done. Once you give you approval to the final sample, then you can start relaxing and just wait for two weeks for delivery time.

3.Choose your materials. You have the options of polyester, nylon, dye sublimated lanyards, cord or woven, to name a few. If you are undecided to which material is ideal for you, you can ask assistance from the lanyard company’s agents. They are very knowledgeable about their business.

4.Count the cost. Check the quotation and see if it would suit your budget. The price can vary according to the quantity of your order, the material and width of the lanyard that you are going to use, and the attachment that you prefer, among other things.

5.Choose the lanyard company wisely. Do not just look at their prices. Study the company profile. Ask around. Check their credibility. If you want a hassle-free transaction, choose from the reliable companies only.

C stands for Characteristics of lanyards

Much has been said about the good qualities of lanyards. Here are some of them:

1.Value for money. It is economical and yet effective to whatever purpose you intended it to. As a marketing tool, it could help make your company become more known. As a corporate give away, it could relay the message to your loyal clients of how much you appreciate their patronage. As holder of your small or big items, you can be sure that these items would be secured.

2.Longer lasting. Compared to other promotional items, lanyards can pass the test of time. They are sturdy. With proper care, they are guaranteed to remain for years.

3.Fashionable. They will not go out of style. If they have survived 500 years, then it is safe to say that logo lanyards are here to stay!

Callaway Golf Clubs

Sports | Posted by Kelly Rodriguez
Dec 31 2014

Callaway golf offers a wide variety of clubs depending on your skill level and preference. Each golf club is optimized with the best loft, lie, shaft and grip to help deliver precision and accuracy, and improve the overall performance of the game. From drivers, fairway woods, hybrids, to iron/combo sets and wedges, you have various options to choose from.

Callaway golfWhen it comes to drivers, or 1-wood, which are the least lofted and not recommended for beginners as they are the toughest club to master, the Big Bertha Alpha 815 Driver offers the benefit of maximum distance from low spin and forgiveness as well as excellent adjustability of the bias, loft and lie angle configurations. On the other hand, the Big Bertha V series Driver is equipped with a speed optimized technology and OptiFit technology to help deliver higher balls speeds and maximum performance. In contrast, the all titanium driver X2 Hot Pro Driver offers faster ball speeds and an improved head shape construction. It was also awarded Gold Medal in the 2014 Gold Digest Hot List.

Fairway woods, on the other hand, are shorter and have smaller heads compared to drivers, which is why they are highly recommended for beginners. There are five different kinds of fairway woods that Callaway Golf offers. They are Big Bertha V Series Fairway Wood, Big Bertha Fairway Wood, X2 Hot Fairway Wood, X2 Hot Deep Fairway Wood and the X2 Hot Pro Fairway Wood.

If looking for hybrids, Callaway has the Big Bertha Hybrid, X2 Hot Hybrid, X2 Hot Pro Hybrid, Edge Hybrid, Apex Utility Hybrid and X Utility Prototype Hybrid to choose from. The Big Bertha Hybrid is very versatile and easy to launch, and also features a Hyper Speed Face Cup to speed up both center and off-center hits. The Edge Hybrid has an offset hosel design, high MOI and lower leading edge, making the launch higher, farther and straighter.The X2 Hot Hybrid is designed with a new Tour inspired shape that enhances turf interaction and increases playability and accuracy from all types of lies. It also has Ultralite graphite shaft that help increase launch angles.

There are also iron/combo sets from Callaway Golf. They include the Big Bertha, Apex, Apex Pro, Apex Utility, Apex Muscleback, X2 Hot, X2 Hot Pro, X Utility Prototype and Edge Irons. Apex Irons are forged with carbon steel body to deliver excellent responsiveness. They have tungsten sole inserts to maximize forgiveness and increase launch angles in addition to lowering the center of gravity. The X2 Hot Pro features a thinner hot face to increase ball speed and a central mass bar for an enhanced feel and higher MOI. The Big Bertha Iron comes with a 360 Face Cup Technology and Internal Standing Wave for maximum distance and forgiveness. In contrast, the Apex Utility irons have excellent technology to deliver forged precision with performance, playability and forgiveness, which are great alternative to hybrids or long irons.

Wedges are also a popular choice among golfers. From Callaway, there’s Mack Daddy 2 Tour Grind Chrome, Mack Daddy 2 Tour Grind Slate, Mack Daddy 2 Chrome, and Mack Daddy 2 Slate. Equipped with the laser milled micro grooves, the Mack Daddy 2 Tour Grind Chrome has an increased surface roughness, resulting in a better control and precision, and more spins. On the other hand, the Mack Daddy 2 chrome has a combined Tour feedback, feel and aggressive grooves for a club with unparalleled scoring ability. Its grooves which are 39% larger create 25% more spin on shots that are hit out of the rough.

Overall, Callaway golf clubs offers variety in style, performance, and the latest technology to suit the needs of all golfers for their maximum enjoyment of the sport.